Portable reference cells can be used to conduct potential measurements on all types of buried and submerged structures. The cells are made with solid copper elements which are housed in impact resistant plastic tubes. To ensure the copper elements remain electrically stable, copper sulfate crystals are provided with each cell. The crystals surround the copper elements in the plastic tube, and when mixed with distilled water, create a super saturated solution of copper sulfate to reduce ion intermixing. A window on each cell allows the operator to observe the water level of the crystallized solution. If the level is insufficient, water or copper sulfate crystals can be added simply by removing the end cap found on each cell.
To obtain accurate potential readings a portable reference cell must be able to make low resistance contact with an electrolyte. The cells achieve superior electrical contact to soils, water, and concrete through a special porcelain plug. The plugs are porous and remain moist. They are available in different shapes to address specific applications, and when not in use, can be protected by plastic caps which are provided.